Machu Picchu or Machu Pikchu (machu old, pikehes pyramid or mountain that has an extensive base and at the top has sharp peaks,) this “Old Peak” stands as a great historical site called as ‘Inca’ site. The height of this old peak is 2,430m (7970 ft). It is situated in Urubamba province in Peru. Machu Picchu lies on a mountain hill top that is on the top of holy valley and is 80km northwest of Cusco region from where a river known as ‘Urubamba’ flows. It is the world’s most well recognized tourist attraction and archaeological site in South America as well as in Peru.
History: Archaeologists think that Machu Picchu represent the ‘Inca’ civilization , the emperor of this civilization was Pachacuti (1438-1472)
The Incas built the state around 1450, and abandoned it after Spanish conquest a century later. Various historians have presented theories about the history of Machu Picchu.
An American historian Hiram Bigham suggests that the complex was the traditional birth place Incan ‘Virgins of Suns’. Most recent researches by scholars such as John Howland Rowe and Richard Burger have convinced archaeologists that Machu Picchu was an estate of Inca Emperor Pachacuti. In addition, John Reinhard presented evidence for Machu Picchu to be a religious site. The site received significant publicity after the National Geographic society devoted their efforts in April 1973 to Machu Picchu.
Machu Picchu lies in the Southern Hemisphere 13.14 degrees south of the equator. It is situated above the loop of Urubamba River which surrounds the site. The deep precipices and steep mountains provided excellent natural defenses in the past. The Inca Bridge across Urubamba River provided a secret entrance for Inca Army.
This site has water availability which comes from spring and a land enough to live and grow food as well for the people who lived there. The hill sides that lead to the site have terraces which are beneficial to reduce erosion of soil and also help protect against landslides.
Distribution according to the habilitation factors:
The Machu Pichu area is basically distributed among two sectors, the agricultural and residential or urban sectors. These two sectors are called the upper town and lower town. The temples of the site are located on the upper town and ware houses are located on the lower town. This distribution is based on the natural form of the mountain graduation as well. The city has two sectors, eastern and western. The Eastern part is devoted specifically for the religious purposes while the western part is devoted to residential purposes.
Inthihuatana, also known as the Temple of the Sun and Room of three windows is located in the upper town. It is a fundamental archaeological treasure. This temple was prepared to dedicate it to the Mighty Divinity and Sun God named “Inti”.
The lower town is specifically allocated for population as residential area. This area has houses, markets, and storage buildings. The royalty is allocated as the sector for the nobleness. The royalty area is structured in rows over the slop of mountain. The houses of this area have reddish walls that are specifically symbolized for the residence of wise persons, the Amantas.
Intihuatana stone is one of many ceremonial stones in South America. The Inca believed that the stone held the sun in its place along its annual path in the sky. At mid day on the 11th of November and 30th of January, the stone stands nearly over the pillar casting no shade.
The central buildings of Machu Picchu used the classical Inca architectural style of polished dry stone walls. Peru is a highly seismic land thus mortar free construction makes it earthquake resistant. Inca walls had numerous design details that helped protect them against collapsing in an earthquake. Doors and windows are tilt inward from top to bottom and trapezoidal.
Roads and transportation:-
As part of their road system, Incas built a road to a Machu Picchu region. Today, A large number of tourists walk the Inca Trail to visit Machu Picchu each year.
Concerns over Tourism:-
Machu Picchu is a world inheritance site of UNESCO, since its discovery, a growing number of tourists visit the Machu Picchu. Peru as a foremost revenue producer is frequently exposed by fiscal and profitable threats. In the late 1990, the Peruvian government approved discounts to permit construction of cable car and expansion of luxury hotels, including tourist restaurants. Many people protested against the plan as they were concerned that the larger number of visitors will pose a tremendous physical burden on the ruins.
Machu Picchu is considered a historical landmark with a staggering natural exquisiteness. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted as one of the new Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide internet Poll.